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Words and phrases that are to do with sex in li...
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Seminar paper from the year 2001 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, Bielefeld University, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: In his book 'Dr. Bowdler's Legacy' Noel Perrin tells us in the first chapter that a big change of morality took place with the turn of the nineteenth century in England. He puts it as follows: '... the first new generation of the nineteenth century (grew) up more strait-laced, inhibited, and conventional than its parents, so that sons discussed their fathers' wild oaths, and daughters worried about their mothers' loose sexual behaviour.' According to Perrin one of the cornerstones of this new way of thinking was that the people began to acquire a more reserved attitude towards sexuality. The chief cause of this tendency was what can be called the rise of the idea of delicacy, or 'the new prudery'. From the middle of the eighteenth century onwards, delicacy came to be regarded as a special and precious characteristic - especially among women. Basically, it means that people felt offended as soon as they were confronted with sexuality in whatever form. Blushing and fainting were outward indicators of this new propriety. Another consequence was that people began to keep away from anything that might be a burden on their conscience. An important result of this trend was the emergence of the idea of expurgation in literature. That is people simply started to remove 'words or scenes that were considered likely to offend or shock'. The pioneering work in this field was Dr. Bowdler's 'Family Shakespeare', which was published in 1807. Dr. Bowdler's aim was - according to the fashion of his time - 'to exclude from this publication whatever is unfit to be read aloud by a gentleman to a company of ladies'. In another passage he says that he wants to enable a father to read one of Shakespeare's plays to his family circle 'without incurring the danger of falling unawares among words and expressions which are of such a nature as to raise a blush on the cheek of modesty ...'. As he says in the preface to the first edition, Bowdler was primarily concerned with profanity and obscenity. In this essay I will constrict myself to the field of obscenity in its sexual dimension. In the first part of my paper I will watch a Victorian at work by examining Bowdler's version of 'Romeo and Juliet' and comparing it to Shakespeare's. What kind of words and passages does he change and in what way does he revise them? Does he treat different terms in different ways?

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Concepts of love in William Shakespeare's Romeo...
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Seminar paper from the year 2001 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, Bielefeld University, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Why was Shakespeare so successful in his times? How come, his plays drew the masses into the theatres? How did he manage to attract all these different groups of people with different backgrounds at the same time? These are the questions I will have in the back of my mind while writing this paper. I will examine one aspect of his style more closely, which I found in hisRomeo and Juliet.In doing so, I hope to give at least some small explanation of the reason of his overwhelming success. It was probably in 1595 when Shakespeare wrote this famous tragedy. He was doing so, living in a society which was leaving the Middle Ages far behind and rapidly growing in complexity. The English society was splitting up into a huge variety of different groups and organisations. The Reformation produced a wealth of new religious groupings. Especially the Puritans were to become very influential in England. The rise of the middle class was taking place under the reign of queen Elizabeth, which was combining artisans, merchants and the more prosperous peasants and was accumulating new resources and capital. The aristocracy was changing: It was opening up for new members, mostly wholesalers who had earned a fortune with the profitable overseas trade. The decline of the ancient system of feudalism was highly advanced, which for the common peasant meant that he wasn't tied to his small piece of soil any longer. He was much more mobile now. Family structures were changing as well. The kin (that is the enlarged family) as the main organising factor was beginning to lose ground to the smaller nuclear family.

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Kendrick Lamar. Eine sozialwissenschaftliche Pe...
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Bachelorarbeit aus dem Jahr 2015 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Individuum, Gruppe, Gesellschaft, Note: 2,3, Universität Bielefeld, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Um die Werte, Normen, Einstellungen und Verhaltensmuster eines Menschen nachzuvollziehen, muss die Umwelt der Person untersucht und analysiert werden. Da Menschen von ihrer Umwelt beeinflusst werden, muss dieser Einfluss auch in ihrer Arbeit und in ihren Aussagen zu finden sein. Dies beschreibt Kendrick Lamar mit der Aussage zu seinem Musikalbum 'good kid maad city' ausführlich. 'It's really just a self portrait. I feel like everything that people have asked me in interviews should be explained in this one album. How I'm able to think the way I think now- it had to come from a negative place first. Family issues, morals. All that is in one debut. I feel like its's a whole new market of people that's listening to me now, so it's almost like a reintroduction to who I am furthering that longevity.' (DUNCAN COOPER OCTOBER 17, 2012 #11D) Die Forschungsfrage bezieht sich auf den Einfluss der Umwelt von Kendrick Lamar und wie er diese Eindrücke in seiner Kunst als Rapper und Mensch ausdrückt und wiedergibt. Bei der Herausarbeitung der thematischen Schwerpunkte von Kendricks Sozialisationsschwerpunkten bin ich auf die Aussagen in seinen Interviews und Raptexten aus seinem Musikalbum 'good kid maad city' eingegangen. Diese bestehen sehr grob ausgearbeitet aus Armut, Gewalt, Drogenmissbrauch im Verkauf, sowie Konsum, Prostitution, Sexismus und Jugendkriminialität. Dabei habe ich mich verstärkt auf die Entstehung von Gewalt, Gangkriminalität, Drogenverkauf und -missbrauch in Kendricks Umgebung konzentriert. Bei den Ergebnissen meiner Forschungen stachen diese Aspekte in seinen Texten und in seinen Interviews am grössten hervor. Des Weiteren werde ich die Gründe für die Entstehung der Armut in Kendricks Umwelt ausführlich erläutern, da diese ein treibender Faktor in der Entstehung von Kriminalität und Gewalt sind. Zu diesem Zweck sind die politischen und geschichtlichen Entwicklung in die Analyse von Kendrick als übergeordnetes Makrosystem miteinzubeziehen und als Erklärungsansatz für die Sozialisation seiner Umwelt heranzuführen. Darauf aufbauend soll der stetige Rückzug staatlicher Institutionen aus sozialen Brennpunkten erklärt werden und welche Folgen die politische Umorientierung des Staates auf die Gesamtentwicklung der Ghettos gehabt hat. [...]

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A Mennonite Low German Short Story
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Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Bielefeld University, course: English as a Global Lingua Franca, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The approach of this paper is it to present the Mennonite Low German dialect and to develop an easily intelligible orthography for the mentioned dialect. In the first point the roots of the Low German dialect under examination are highlighted and it is shown that it belongs to the same family as the English language. Both varieties belong to the Indo-European languages or, more precisely, to its West-Germanic branch. Then, point two explains where the term Mennonite Low German comes from by unrolling the history of the Mennonites, their moves and their linguistic history. In terms of definition there is a further question that has to be tackled, namely whether Mennonite Low German is a language or a dialect. This question will be discussed in point three, bearing in mind the four criteria Petyt names to decide whether a variety is a language or a dialect. After having explained and linguistically discussed the term Mennonite Low German, I present my grandmother's short story and use it to develop Mennonite Low German orthography, which will be expounded in the fifth paragraph. The mentioned paragraph is subdivided into four points, of which the first one discusses Mennonite Low German orthography, its tries and problems. As most of the Mennonite Low German speakers are familiar with High German (but not with other Low German dialects), the Mennonite Low German orthography presented in this paper will follow several characteristics of German orthography, when considered as useful. Moreover, a short sketch of Mennonite Low German phonology and morphology will be provided in the following subparagraph in order to round off the topic. A short overview of the variations of the dialect under examination can be found in point 5.3; namely the Molotschna and the Old Colony accents. The last subparagraph deals with Mennonite Low German loan words and recent word formation. This variety contains several loan words that come from Dutch, Russian or German, for example. Paragraph number six explains the death of a former Lingua Franca, which Low German had been at the time of the Hanseatic League. The decline of Low German might also explain the underestimation of its dialect Mennonite Low German.

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Comparative and Transnational History: Central ...
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The volume makes available to English readers an important ongoing discussion centred in Germany but having clear connections with international developments in historiography. European History Quarterly The essay offers an excellent and nuanced discussion of comparative history's fundamental assumptions and approaches, its strengths and weaknesses, its possibilities and limits...Scholars or students looking to refresh their understanding of the methods and challenges of comparative history and to learn how German historians discuss transnational approaches will find much to appreciate in this collection, which is particularly well suited to the needs of graduate seminars. If this book helps end the overblown and sometimes petty arguments over which method will reign supreme and helps us take advantage of the obvious benefits of each approach, Haupt and Kocka will have done us a great service. Canadian Journal of History/Annalees canadiennes d'histoire Since the 1970s West German historiography has been one of the main arenas of international comparative history. It has produced important empirical studies particularly in social history as well as methodological and theoretical reflections on comparative history. During the last twenty years however, this approach has felt pressure from two sources: cultural historical approaches, which stress microhistory and the construction of cultural transfer on the one hand, global history and transnational approaches with emphasis on connected history on the other. This volume introduces the reader to some of the major methodological debates and to recent empirical research of German historians, who do comparative and transnational work. Heinz-Gerhard Haupt is currently Professor of European History at the European University Institute. Previously, he was at the Universities of Bremen (1974-93), Halle (1993-98), and Bielefeld (1998-2004). He has been a Visiting Professor at the École des Hautes Études, Paris, University of Lyon II, and Columbia University and a Fellow at Princeton University. His publications in English include The Petite Bourgeoisie in Europe 1780-1914: Enterprise, Family and Independence (with G.Crossick, Routledge, 1995) and Europe in 1848: Revolution and Reform (edited with D. Dowe, D. Langewiesche, J. Sperber, 2001). Jürgen Kocka is currently Professor for the History of the Industrial World at the Free University of Berlin, Research Professor at the Social Science Research Center Berlin and, regularly, a Visiting Professor at the University of California Los Angeles. Between 1973 and 1988 he taught in the University of Bielefeld. He has published widely in the field of modern history of Europe. His publications in the English language include Facing Total War. German Society 1914-1918 (Berg, 1984) and Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society. Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany (Berghahn, 1999).

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Economic Theory of Optimal Population
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We are used to calling most developing countries overpopulated and consi dering some industrialized countries (like West Germany) 'threatened by underpopulation'. Analogous population policies with different objecti ves are discussed. However, none of the measures suggested can be justi fied or evaluated without an implicit concept of optimum population, a notion which has attracted attention ever since economics was made a science. The relevance of the subject and the recent rise in interest by popula tion economists has motivated the organization of a conference on 'Opti mal Population' in Bielefeld, where most of this book originates. Finan cial support for the conference and the publication of this book by the Thyssen Foundation and the editorial help provided by John De New and Contents Optimum Population: An Introduction K. F. Zimmermann ......... . I. Optimal Size and Growth Rate of Population Socially Optimal Population Size and Individual Choice M. Nerlove, A. Razin, and E. Sadka . . . . . . . 19 Endogenous Population With Discrete Family Size and a Capital Market D. Leonard .................. .

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Kendrick Lamar. Eine sozialwissenschaftliche Pe...
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Bachelorarbeit aus dem Jahr 2015 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Individuum, Gruppe, Gesellschaft, Note: 2,3, Universität Bielefeld, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Um die Werte, Normen, Einstellungen und Verhaltensmuster eines Menschen nachzuvollziehen, muss die Umwelt der Person untersucht und analysiert werden. Da Menschen von ihrer Umwelt beeinflusst werden, muss dieser Einfluss auch in ihrer Arbeit und in ihren Aussagen zu finden sein. Dies beschreibt Kendrick Lamar mit der Aussage zu seinem Musikalbum 'good kid maad city' ausführlich. 'It's really just a self portrait. I feel like everything that people have asked me in interviews should be explained in this one album. How I'm able to think the way I think now- it had to come from a negative place first. Family issues, morals. All that is in one debut. I feel like its's a whole new market of people that's listening to me now, so it's almost like a reintroduction to who I am furthering that longevity.' (DUNCAN COOPER OCTOBER 17, 2012 #11D) Die Forschungsfrage bezieht sich auf den Einfluss der Umwelt von Kendrick Lamar und wie er diese Eindrücke in seiner Kunst als Rapper und Mensch ausdrückt und wiedergibt. Bei der Herausarbeitung der thematischen Schwerpunkte von Kendricks Sozialisationsschwerpunkten bin ich auf die Aussagen in seinen Interviews und Raptexten aus seinem Musikalbum 'good kid maad city' eingegangen. Diese bestehen sehr grob ausgearbeitet aus Armut, Gewalt, Drogenmissbrauch im Verkauf, sowie Konsum, Prostitution, Sexismus und Jugendkriminialität. Dabei habe ich mich verstärkt auf die Entstehung von Gewalt, Gangkriminalität, Drogenverkauf und -missbrauch in Kendricks Umgebung konzentriert. Bei den Ergebnissen meiner Forschungen stachen diese Aspekte in seinen Texten und in seinen Interviews am größten hervor. Des Weiteren werde ich die Gründe für die Entstehung der Armut in Kendricks Umwelt ausführlich erläutern, da diese ein treibender Faktor in der Entstehung von Kriminalität und Gewalt sind. Zu diesem Zweck sind die politischen und geschichtlichen Entwicklung in die Analyse von Kendrick als übergeordnetes Makrosystem miteinzubeziehen und als Erklärungsansatz für die Sozialisation seiner Umwelt heranzuführen. Darauf aufbauend soll der stetige Rückzug staatlicher Institutionen aus sozialen Brennpunkten erklärt werden und welche Folgen die politische Umorientierung des Staates auf die Gesamtentwicklung der Ghettos gehabt hat. [...]

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Words and phrases that are to do with sex in li...
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Seminar paper from the year 2001 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, Bielefeld University, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: In his book 'Dr. Bowdler's Legacy' Noel Perrin tells us in the first chapter that a big change of morality took place with the turn of the nineteenth century in England. He puts it as follows: '... the first new generation of the nineteenth century (grew) up more strait-laced, inhibited, and conventional than its parents, so that sons discussed their fathers' wild oaths, and daughters worried about their mothers' loose sexual behaviour.' According to Perrin one of the cornerstones of this new way of thinking was that the people began to acquire a more reserved attitude towards sexuality. The chief cause of this tendency was what can be called the rise of the idea of delicacy, or 'the new prudery'. From the middle of the eighteenth century onwards, delicacy came to be regarded as a special and precious characteristic - especially among women. Basically, it means that people felt offended as soon as they were confronted with sexuality in whatever form. Blushing and fainting were outward indicators of this new propriety. Another consequence was that people began to keep away from anything that might be a burden on their conscience. An important result of this trend was the emergence of the idea of expurgation in literature. That is people simply started to remove 'words or scenes that were considered likely to offend or shock'. The pioneering work in this field was Dr. Bowdler's 'Family Shakespeare', which was published in 1807. Dr. Bowdler's aim was - according to the fashion of his time - 'to exclude from this publication whatever is unfit to be read aloud by a gentleman to a company of ladies'. In another passage he says that he wants to enable a father to read one of Shakespeare's plays to his family circle 'without incurring the danger of falling unawares among words and expressions which are of such a nature as to raise a blush on the cheek of modesty ...'. As he says in the preface to the first edition, Bowdler was primarily concerned with profanity and obscenity. In this essay I will constrict myself to the field of obscenity in its sexual dimension. In the first part of my paper I will watch a Victorian at work by examining Bowdler's version of 'Romeo and Juliet' and comparing it to Shakespeare's. What kind of words and passages does he change and in what way does he revise them? Does he treat different terms in different ways?

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A Mennonite Low German Short Story
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Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Bielefeld University, course: English as a Global Lingua Franca, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The approach of this paper is it to present the Mennonite Low German dialect and to develop an easily intelligible orthography for the mentioned dialect. In the first point the roots of the Low German dialect under examination are highlighted and it is shown that it belongs to the same family as the English language. Both varieties belong to the Indo-European languages or, more precisely, to its West-Germanic branch. Then, point two explains where the term Mennonite Low German comes from by unrolling the history of the Mennonites, their moves and their linguistic history. In terms of definition there is a further question that has to be tackled, namely whether Mennonite Low German is a language or a dialect. This question will be discussed in point three, bearing in mind the four criteria Petyt names to decide whether a variety is a language or a dialect. After having explained and linguistically discussed the term Mennonite Low German, I present my grandmother's short story and use it to develop Mennonite Low German orthography, which will be expounded in the fifth paragraph. The mentioned paragraph is subdivided into four points, of which the first one discusses Mennonite Low German orthography, its tries and problems. As most of the Mennonite Low German speakers are familiar with High German (but not with other Low German dialects), the Mennonite Low German orthography presented in this paper will follow several characteristics of German orthography, when considered as useful. Moreover, a short sketch of Mennonite Low German phonology and morphology will be provided in the following subparagraph in order to round off the topic. A short overview of the variations of the dialect under examination can be found in point 5.3; namely the Molotschna and the Old Colony accents. The last subparagraph deals with Mennonite Low German loan words and recent word formation. This variety contains several loan words that come from Dutch, Russian or German, for example. Paragraph number six explains the death of a former Lingua Franca, which Low German had been at the time of the Hanseatic League. The decline of Low German might also explain the underestimation of its dialect Mennonite Low German.

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